ImplementationInternational Council of Clean Transportation
This study investigates consumer incentives for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and battery electric vehicles (BEVs) in the five largest markets in Europe: Germany, the United Kingdom, France, the Netherlands, and Norway. The paper looks at incentives at the national level, and uses 10 case studies of European cities/regions to examine how local governments can complement national incentives. The focus is on fiscal incentives, charging infrastructure density, and EV market shares as key indicators of countries’ readiness to transition to electric mobility. The study analyzes the diffusion of EVs at the regional level, including maps of EV market shares and charging infrastructure for each market.